At that time Mary got ready and hurried to a town in the hill country of Judea, where she entered Zechariah’s home and greeted Elizabeth. When Elizabeth heard Mary’s greeting, the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. In a loud voice she exclaimed: ‘Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the child you will bear! But why am I so favored, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? As soon as the sound of your greeting reached my ears, the baby in my womb leaped for joy. Blessed is she who has believed that what the Lord has said to her will be accomplished!’

Luke 1:39-45

Cyril of Alexandria argued against Nestorius that Mary was properly called theotokos- mother of God, God-bearer- rather than ‘Christ-bearer’.  Mary’s cousin Elizabeth, and Jesus’ unborn cousin John, are without hesitation: the Holy Spirit has brought to know that the baby in Mary’s womb is not just a special child, a chosen vessel, an exalted man.  The tiny cluster of cells is the LORD of Israel, the divine Messiah, the Son of the Most High.

If we join Nestorius in shrinking back from calling Mary theotokos we join him in wrenching Jesus of Nazareth out of the eternal fellowship of the Trinity.  He is no more than a specially anointed Messiah: not a divine one.  Yet Elizabeth warns us against this, and the scriptures require us to confess the divinity of the foetus in Mary’s womb.


In ‘Writings on the Trinity, Grace, and Faith’ Jonathan Edwards asks ‘In what sense did the saints under the Old Testament believe in Christ to Justification?’.

His answer is in 11 parts, outlined below and online in full here.

I. The person that in Jeremiah 2:2 and in many other places is spoken of as espousing that people Israel to himself, and that went before them in the wilderness, and brought ’em into Canaan, and dwelt amongst them in the Holy of Holies in the tabernacle and temple, was the Son of God, as is most manifest by that, that he is often called the “angel of the Lord,” “the angel of God’s presence,” “the messenger of the covenant,” etc.

II. It was plainly and fully revealed to the church of Israel that this person was a different person from him in heaven that sustained the dignity and maintained the rights of the Godhead, and acted as first and head and chief in the affairs of God’s kingdom; and that this person, that had espoused the church of Israel to himself and dwelt amongst them as their spiritual husband, acted under him as a messenger from him. And as this was sufficiently revealed to that people, so the church of Israel all along understood it.

III. One of the names by which that divine person, that was with the Jews in the wilderness and that dwelt with them in the land of Canaan, was known among them, was “the son of God.”

IV. The church of Israel understood that this person which has been spoken of had united himself to them in the strictest union, and had espoused them and become their spiritual head and husband, and had most nearly interested himself in their affairs.

V. The church of Israel had it plainly signified to ’em that God, the first person in the deity, had committed them to the care and charge of this angel of his presence, that he had set him over them to be in a peculiar manner their protector, guide and Savior, and head of their communication and supplies, and God’s people trusted in him as such.

VI. The people of Israel could not but understand that this person was transcendently dear to God, i.e. to the first person in the deity.

VII. The saints in Israel looked on this person as their Mediator, through whom they had acceptance with God in heaven and the forgiveness of their sins, and trusted in him as such.

VIII. The saints in Israel were led to that apprehension, that their prayers and all the sacrifices which were offered in the temple were accepted, and that God was reconciled to those [that] worshipped and made their offerings there, as though atonement were made and a sweet savor offered. Not on account of the value of their offerings as in themselves, but through that person called God’s name who dwelt there as their Mediator, and through his worthiness.

IX. God’s people of old must needs understand that that divine person that had espoused that people, and that formerly went before ’em in the wilderness and dwelt among them as their Lord, protector, Mediator and Redeemer, was he that was in future time come into the world in the human nature, who was the Messiah so often promised.

X. God’s saints in Israel supposed that the Messiah, when he came, or the angel of the covenant, when he should come to dwell amongst men in the human nature, would make an end of their sins and wholly abolish the guilt of then by an atonement which he should make; and that the guilt of their sins, though removed from them and as it were laid upon that divine person who dwelt on the propitiatory in the temple, and was by him taken on himself, yet would not properly [be] abolished and made an end [of] till he should come.

XI. The saints in Israel understood that the way that the Messiah was to make a proper and true atonement for sin, and make an end of it, was by his own suffering and by offering up himself a sacrifice for sin.

XII. God’s people brought and offered their sacrifices, depending upon them for reconciliation to God and acceptance to his favor, no otherwise than as representations of that great sacrifice and atonement of the Messiah, or as having reference and respect to that.

XIII. Such a dependence on the divine Mediator as has been spoken [of] was the revealed and known condition of peace and acceptance with God.

And thus I suppose the saints under the old testament trusted in Christ and were justified by faith in him.

Christology #1

August 11, 2009

Apparently Mark Driscoll is starting a preaching series on Jesus.  He says it will explore both ‘the glory of Jesus as God, and the humility of Jesus as man.’  That’s a common distinction to hear.  Another is that only the humanity of Christ bore our sin on the cross.  (On the grounds that His divinity could not, becuase God cannot die.)  This position is often affirmed by leading UK evangelicals.

It’s time to think about Christology.  Our motto?  ‘One Lord Jesus Christ’.


May 13, 2009

A couple of bloggers are exploring issues that will interest any Christ-centred theologian:

Dave Bish
The Dawn of World Redemption
Unlocking the Gospel in the 10 Commandments and the Tabernacle

Martin Downes at the Coffee and Bible Club
Whatever Happened to the Angel of the Lord?

Very worthwhile discussions to have. 

Christianity & Judaism

May 12, 2009

We very often read the Bible in ways coloured by the secular academia, modern science, sociology  and our own historical biases, rather than approaching it on its own terms.  As a result, we look at issues in theology in cultural, sociological, and historical ways instead of biblically.

How about this one for starters: the relationship between ‘Christianity’ and Judaism.

‘Modern Jewish people believe in and worship the God of the Old Testament.  They keep the Feasts of the LORD, they would return to the Temple if they could.  They have so much of the truth but have simply missed out on the identity of the Messiah.  They’re so close!  The Messiah has come: they just need to realise that He has.’

Those things all sound true and make logical sense, but they are not really the way the Bible encourages us to look at the Jewish people.  Paul in Galatians 1 speaks about his ‘previous way of life in Judaism’, how he ‘persecuted the church of God’, and how he was brought out of this by a revelation of ‘Jesus Christ’.  Far from simply adding ‘the missing piece of the puzzle’, Paul says he has experienced a radical conversion when he met the risen Christ.  

The reason it’s so radical is that Judaism by the time of Paul (and by the time of the Incarnation of Jesus) was so far departed from the religion of the Old Testament.  In fact the religion of the Old Testament was often very far removed from the faith of the patriarchs.  The Bible is clear that the true religion of Israel under the Old Covenant was exhaustively Christ-centred: the sacrifices, feasts, laws, and promises all proclaimed to Him (Galatians 3v16, Colossians 2v16-17); the patriarchs and the saints knew Him (John 12v41, Hebrews 11v26) ; He was present ministering to His people throughout appearing variously as the LORD, the Angel of the LORD, El Shaddai, the Word of the LORD, Melchizedek, the Voice of the LORD, the fear of Isaac, I AM, the Rock of Israel, the Commander of the Armies of the LORD,  the Glory of the LORD, the Presence of the LORD, Son of Man, etc.

Yet by the time of Jesus’ earthly days, the religion had become so Christ-less that they were blind to the very Christ that their ancestors loved and served (Mark 4v12, Romans 9v33); they had departed from pursing righteousness by faith in Him (Genesis 15v6) to pursuing it through the keeping of the law, which is Paul’s great burden (Romans 9v31-32).  It is vital that we realise this: modern Judaism is not the continuation of the religion of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, David, and the other patriarchs- these were believers in the coming Seed of Abraham, and therefore their faith is carried-on not in modern Judaism, but in all ‘children of Abraham’ who trust in Christ (Romans 9v6-8).  ‘Christianity’ is not a ‘sect of Judaism’, it was not founded 2000 years ago by a Jewish peasant.  It is the genuine prophetic, historical, theological, spiritual, revealed continuation of the faith of the patriarchs and saints from the very beginning of history.  Or to put it another way, if Abraham was allowed back to earth for a time he would be pleading with his Jewish brothers and sisters to trust in Jesus.

When we fail to assert this, we’ve simply conceded to a secular view of history which is apart from the Lord’s revelation of His work.  This means that Jewish evangelism is a different kettle of fish to that which we might conceive.  It’s far from being a casual nudge towards accepting the Messiah they failed to spot: it is reclaiming His position as the heart of the heritage that is theirs (Romans 9v4-7).  It is far more than adding the missing piece of Jesus to their nearly complete jigsaw picture of God.  It is showing that unless they call on the name of Jesus Christ, they are not calling on the name of the LORD of Israel at all (Romans 10v9-15).  It shows that the law they are pursuing is dead and useless unless they have been convicted of their sin by it, and led to Christ whom it proclaims (Galatians 3v19).  Indeed unless this has happened, they are condemning themselves (John 5v39-40).  It is not about persuading them with all our energy that they must upgrade to Jesus: it is about realising that they are spiritually blind (Romans 9v16, 10v2, 11v25) and need the proclamation of the gospel to open their eyes.  This works out in anguish and prayer (Romans 9v3, 10v1) and provocative living by Christians (Romans 11v14).  Most of all, it means speaking about Christ who is the cornerstone of the faith of their forefathers which has become twisted (Acts 4v10-12, Romans 10v14-15).  It also takes into account the promise that even though they have rejected God by rejecting His Son (John 6v45, 8v20, 8v42), God has not similarly rejected the Jewish people (Romans 11v1) but has held-out for them the offer of salvation in Christ.  He has not turned his back on them forever (Romans 11v11) because within the Jewish people are many of his chosen remnant (Romans 11v5, Revelation 7v9).

If we are to examine the relationship between Christianity and Judaism biblically (not socio-historically) we will see that modern Judaism has little in common with the religion of its claimed patriarchs.  What we call ‘Christianity’ is in fact the true faith of the Old Testament saints- even if we tend to imagine it dressed in post-Enlightenment, Western categories.  Those who love and trust in the Son of the living God for salvation are the heirs of the patriarchs.  Alec Motyer says this, 

[Early believers] should never have allowed the people of Antioch to get away with nicknaming them Christians. Our proper name is Israel. 
Banner of Truth interview 

When men and women of any ethnicity trust in Christ, they are joining the true ‘Israel of God’, the company of the sons and daughters of Abraham, the long line believers in the true and only living God.  There is no issue of national Israel being ‘replaced’ by a new entity ‘the Church’: the matter is all believers today pointing to believing Israel in the Old Testament and saying ‘That’s us!’, claiming the patriarchs as their genuine forefathers, and the Hebrew scriptures as a genuine proclamation of their own Saviour.

Even the study of modern religions must be subjected to the Truth that is found in Christ alone.

Here’s Ephesians 3:2-6.

Surely you have heard about the administration of God’s grace that was given to me for you, that is, the mystery made known to me by revelation, as I have already written briefly. In reading this, then, you will be able to understand my insight into the mystery of Christ, which was not made known to men in other generations as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to God’s holy apostles and prophets. This mystery is…

The doctrine of the Trinity?
A new way of salvation through faith in Christ?
The ‘arrival’ of the Holy Spirit?
New eschatological depth to all the physical promises to Israel?

No, it is

…that through the gospel the Gentiles are heirs together with Israel, members together of one body, and sharers together in the promise in Christ Jesus.

The big issue in the New Testament is the inclusion of the Gentiles in Israel.  Nothing more, nothing less.  What is the great privilege of Israel that these newly introduced Gentiles share?  Christ Jesus.

What’s new about the New Testament?  Not very much, really.

Direction of Travel

May 6, 2009

If Christ is the Alpha and Omega of our theology, we need to learn how to interpret the scriptures in the light of Him.  This gets shown up perhaps most of all in our direction of travel within the Bible.  For example, we read this:

The bull and the goat for the sin offerings, whose blood was brought into the Most Holy Place to make atonement, must be taken outside the camp; their hides, flesh and offal are to be burned up. The man who burns them must wash his clothes and bathe himself with water; afterward he may come into the camp.
Leviticus 16:27-28

We make some links to Christ: Day of Atonement (tick), sin offering (tick), blood presented to God (tick), outside the camp (tick), burned offering (tick), cleansing (tick).  But then we can go wrong.

Wrong response 1
‘All the details of Jesus’ death outside the city wall, the descriptions of him as the propitiation for sin, etc. take the language of the Jewish Day of Atonement to explain what is happening at the crucifixion.’

Wrong response 2
‘It’s amazing how the ritual of the Day of Atonement points to Christ!  The sin offering was sacrificed outside the camp (I’ve read John 19:20 and Hebrews 13:13!), and the blood was taken into the Most Holy Place.  The details totally line-up with Jesus’ death: He is the sin offering!  It all fits together!’

The right response is to confess that it’s nothing more than totally blindingly obvious.  The ritual of the Day of Atonement had no other purpose than to detail the crucifixion of Christ.  The point of the Day of Atonement is to preach Christ crucified. 

Correct response
‘It is relatively unsurprising to me that the manner and circumstances of Jesus’ death line-up exactly with the gospel as proclaimed in the Day of Atonment.  That is why the rituals were given.’

The direction of travel in interpreting these things is not to examine at the accounts of the crucifixion, then clasp our hands to our mouths when reading Leviticus 16.  We should read the Pentateuch, and nod knowlingly when we reach the Gospels.

Christ is proclaimed in the Old Testament, not ‘pointed to’; the New Testament does not unveil new information about Him, but simply records the happenings predicted by the Law, prophets, and writings.

‘…I stand here and testify to small and great alike.  I am saying nothing beyond what the prophets and Moses said would happen…’
Acts 23:42